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SAT语法考试要点:句子残缺

2018-12-18 19:06:00 来源:新东方在线

  新东方在线SAT频道为大家带来“SAT语法考试要点:句子残缺”一文,希望对大家SAT备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线SAT频道!

  一、考点详解

  1. 句子缺少谓语

  一般情况下,英语句子都是由主语和谓语这两部分组成,相比之下,谓语显得更为重要,因为谓语是陈述主语的所发出的动作、状态以及与其他成分的关系。在汉语的表达中常会出现省略谓语动词的情况,特别当谓语动词为系动词时,如“你的想法真不错。”受到汉语的影响,学生,特别是初学者,会用Your idea very nice类似的错误句子来表达。这种汉英的差异给学生学习英语带来很多问题。英语要求每一个句子都必须出现谓语动词。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句1:The idea of a safer cigarette not new, and Tobacco groups have toyed with the ideafor 50 years but with no serious breakthroughs from either a health or a business perspective.

  例句1是由and连接的两个简单句,前半部分缺少系动词连接主语The idea of a safer cigarette和表语not new。所以应改为The idea of a safer cigarette is not new.

  2. 过去分词/现在分词代替谓语动词

  在SAT试题中,往往出现一些形式类似谓语动词的结构,出现在谓语位置上,比如现在分词或过去分词等。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句2:Although he only taught SAT for a week, he surprisingly scored 2350.

  例句2是一个非常简单的主从复合句,表面看来从句谓语动词为taught,主句为scored,两句都不缺乏任何部分,但该句的意义就明显不符合逻辑:“尽管他只教了SAT一个星期,他却出乎意料地考了2350分。”根据该句所要表达的意义,我们可以推测出应该是,“他只学了SAT一个星期”,而taught实际上是teach的过去分词,缺少了be动词形成被动,所以该句应该改为:Although he was only taught SAT for a week, hesurprisingly scored 2350. 此类问题比较隐蔽,因为有些动词的过去式与过去分词是相同的,需要通过句子意义与逻辑去判断。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句3: a) Betty Ford eulogized as trailblazer who helped millions

  b) Betty Ford, whose frank talk about her travails of breast cancer, alcoholism and pilladdiction made her for a time one of the nation's most popular women, was eulogized as acourageous trailblazer Tuesday in this desert oasis where she and her late husband, formerpresident Gerald Ford, lived after the White House.

  例句3为刊登在USA today 上的一篇文章的标题和首段,我们先看一下标题a) ,eulogized是不是标题的谓语动词呢?我们可以与b)相比较,b)句的主干为Betty Ford was eulogized as a courageoustrailblazer,显而易见,eulogized只是过去分词,需要be动词构成被动语态。标题中没有出现be动词主要是因为英文中的文章标题并不需要时一个完整的句子,使用名词短语就可以,eulogized as trailblazer whohelped millions在标题中充当的是一个定语,即过去分词作定语。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句4:Responsible for running the biggest country in the world, Russia’s 45-year-oldpresident seeming to exercise limited control over it.

  该例句中,很显然没有正确的动词形式来充当谓语,seeming放在主语Russia’s 45-year-old president后理应要做谓语,但是其形式为现在分词,无法扮演该角色,所以应该改为seems/seemed。

  3. 句子缺少主句

  句子残缺还表现在复合句中缺乏主句这一情况。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句5:The surge in silver prices which has attracted investors the world over, from Chinaand India to the US, where the metal has become the investment of choice for Americansdistrustful of the actions of the government and central bank.

  在阅读长难句时,首先要从分句(clause:分句的基本结构为:NP+ VP)层面观察,因为复杂句都是由主要分句(主句)和次要分句(从句)构成,主句是必须出现的,而从句可以选择出现。例句5中有两个分句,第一个为which has attracted investors the world over, from China and India to the US; 第二个为wherethe metal has become the investment of choice for Americans distrustful of the actions of thegovernment and central bank.两个分句都是次要分句(从句),所以该句缺少主句。这样的句子残缺问题,一般只要把其中一个从句改成主句就可以,例句5只要把第一个从句的which删除,就可以变为主句。

  二、真题再现

  1. Research has shown that children, born with the ability to learn any human language, even several languages at the same time.

  (A) children, born with the ability to learn

  (B) children, when born with the ability for learning

  (C) children, they are born with the ability to learn

  (D) children born with the ability to be learning

  (E) children are born with the ability to learn

  解析:该句子主句完整没有问题,但其宾语从句中缺少谓语动词,born为过去分词不能单独做谓语。

  2. In 1882 there were only seven female doctors practicing in France, when in 1903 thenumber rising to 95.

  (A) when in 1903 the number rising

  (B) but by 1903 the number had risen

  (C) its number rising in 1903

  (D) there in 1903 the number rose

  (E) however, in 1903 when the number had risen

  解析:该句子主句完整没有问题,但其状语从句中缺少谓语动词,rising现在分词不能单独做谓语。

  3. In 1980 a scholar who was examining (A) a fifteenth-century letter-writing manualdiscovering (B) fragments from (C) love letters exchanged (D) between a famous twelfth-century couple, Abelard and Heloise. No error (E)

  解析:该句子去掉定语从句等不相干成分,就会发现主句不完整,discovering现在分词无法做该主句的谓语。

  4. Sometimes loud and frequently annoying, crows spending a lot of time spreading trashacross suburban lawns.

  (A) crows spending

  (B) crows to spend

  (C) crows spend

  (D) crows, which spend

  (E) crows, they spend

  解析:该句子去掉不相干成分,就会发现主句不完整,spending现在分词不可以做谓语。

  5. Although most people think of Egyptian papyrus as the earliest paper, during the HanDynasty, the Chinese developing a process to create paper from individual plant fibers that wasmuch closer to techniques used in modern papermaking.

  (A) the Chinese developing a process to create paper from individual plant fibers that

  (B) the Chinese developing a process and creating paper from individual plant fibers that

  (C) the Chinese that developing a process to create paper from individual plant fibers, it

  (D) the Chinese developed a process to create paper from individual plant fibers, it

  (E) the Chinese developed a process to create paper from individual plant fibers that

  解析:Although后面是个完整的从句,但在主句中虽然主语Chinese出现了,但没有谓语动词与之相配。分词结构式不能做谓语的,即developing不能单独做谓语。划线部分的后面是that引导的定语从句,整个句子还是没有主句。

  6. Although the dancers were nervous at the beginning of their performance, havingshown remarkable ease as the performance progressed.

  (A) having shown remarkable ease as the performance

  (B) once they have showed remarkable ease when the performance had been

  (C) but showing remarkable ease as the performance

  (D) they showed remarkable ease as the performance

  (E) but they showed remarkable ease when the performance

  解析:Although引导一个从句,从句在逗号处结束,而逗号后的结构无法做主句,没有主语和谓语。

  7. Both Cinderella and Snow White being dependent on a prince to rescue them fromunfortunate circumstances.

  (A) Both Cinderella and Snow White being dependent on a prince to rescue them fromunfortunate circumstances.

  (B) Both Cinderella and Snow White were dependent on a prince to rescue them fromunfortunate circumstances.

  (C) Dependent on a prince to rescue them from unfortunate circumstances being bothCinderella and Snow White.

  (D) Unfortunate circumstances were what both Cinderella and Snow White weredependent on a prince to rescue them from.

  (E) Dependent on a prince to rescue them from unfortunate circumstance was bothCinderella and Snow White.

  解析:该句没有谓语动词,being是现在分词无法充当谓语。

  8. The Beatles, remembered for their groundbreaking music, which dramatically affectedthe new, burgeoning teen culture of the band’s biggest fans.

  (A) The Beatles, remembered for their groundbreaking music, which

  (B) The Beatles are remembered for their groundbreaking music, it

  (C) The Beatles are remembered for their groundbreaking music, which

  (D) The Beatles, with their groundbreaking music that

  (E) The Beatles, their groundbreaking music is remembered to have

  解析:该句没有谓语动词,remembered是过去分词无法充当谓语。

  9. Found attached to the colon, the organ known as the appendix losing importancethousands of years ago through the process of evolution.

  (A) the organ known as the appendix losing importance

  (B) the organ known as the appendix has lost importance

  (C) importance of the organ known as the appendix losing

  (D) the organ known as the appendix lost importance

  (E) importance of the organ known as the appendix was lost

  解析:该句没有谓语动词,known为过去分词,losing是现在分词,都无法充当谓语。

  10. During the early 1980’s, after performing in numerous local talent shows, my cousin, who had demonstrated her talent on the television show “Star Search”.

  (A) cousin, who had demonstrated

  (B) cousin, the demonstration of

  (C) cousin demonstrating

  (D) cousin demonstrated

  (E) cousin, as a result of demonstrating

  解析:该句没有主句,只有一个定语从句。

  三、难点聚焦

  1. 过去分词代替谓语动词

  句子残缺的难点主要集中在句中以过去分词代替谓语动词,因为动词的过去分词往往与其过去时形式相同,所以容易被误解为该句的谓语动词。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句6:Iceland knew for its colorful tales, which poetically depict the dangerous, complexlives of the country’s earliest settlers.

  该句是主从复合句,表面看来是一个主句与一个定语从句,而且两句都很完整。但如果把knew看作主句Iceland knew for its colorful tales的谓语动词,这句话意义就无法理解,所以根据该句意义,knew应该是被动表达be known形式。

  2. 连词与分句的数量关系

  英语中连接分句的方式有多种,使用连词是最常见的;但连词的使用有很多要求,最基本的是两句一连词,三句两连词。

  如:Someone borrowed my pen, but I don’t remember who.

  You are supposed to get rid of carelessness, for it often leads to serious errors.

  但如果两句使用两个连词,一句使用一个连词,这在SAT的语法中都是不符合要求的。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句7:Although other private-equity houses would have been interested in Valentino, as itis a valuable brand with good potential for growth, but the price paid effectively killed offany competition.

  例句7是三个分句构成,但三个分句都使用了连词,分别是although, as, but: although和as都是从属连词,不可以单独存在,上下文必须有主句,形成主从复合句;but是并列连词,前后有应该是主句,显而易见but前并不存在主句,所以必须把although删除。

  阅读以下例句,找出其中问题。

  例句8:But the money generated by the Valentino disposal will not be returned toinvestors.

  例句8是一个非常常见的句子,现在的英语表达中已经接受了该表达形式,但严格意义上讲,but为并列连词,功能是连接两个句子,所以这样只连接一个主句的用法是错误的。一般情况下,在书面英语中,我们会使用具有转折含义的副词如however, nevertheless等替代。

  四、难题透析

  1. The teacher’s enthusiasm and obvious passion for the subject inspired students andbefore they had never been interested in Shakespeare.

  (A) students and before they had never been interested in Shakespeare.

  (B) students and they had never before been interested in Shakespeare.

  (C) students; before that they had never been interested in Shakespeare.

  (D) students who had never before been interested in Shakespeare.

  (E) students that Shakespeare had never before interested them.

  解析:该句是由and连接的并列句,前后必须是两个主句,但and后是以before引导的状语从句。

  2. Because the flight was non-stop, and so they able to sleep for a number of hours.

  (A) and so they able to sleep for a number of hours.

  (B) therefore for a number of hours they slept.

  (C) they were able to sleep for a number of hours.

  (D) therefore they were sleeping for a number of hours.

  (E) sleeping for a number of hours was possible for them.

  解析:该句是由and连接的并列句,前后必须是两个主句,但and前是以because引导的原因状语从句。

  3. The problem of food and aid distribution, frequently compounded in certain countriesbecause corrupt officials and poor infrastructure making accessing the neediest people all themore challenging.

  (A) distribution, frequently compounded in certain countries because

  (B) distribution, frequently compounded in certain countries and

  (C) distribution, frequently compounded in certain countries when

  (D) distribution is frequently compounded in certain countries where

  (E) distribution is frequently compounded in certain countries and

  解析:该句是由because连接的主从复合句,主句中动词compound意思为“加重;使化合”,一般用被动形式,所以必须有be动词才能形成真正地谓语。

  4. While it may (A) appear that stewardesses are concerned solely (B) about passengers’ comfort, but they (C) are in fact extensively schooled (D) in flight safety. No error. (E)

  解析:该句是由but连接的并列句,前后必须是两个主句,但but前是以while引导的状语从句。

  5. In many large cities in the United States, the presence of a culturally (A) diversepopulation has led (B) to repeated calls that (C) curricula taught wholly or partly (D) inlanguages other than English. No error (E)

  解析:repeated calls that后引导到得应该是一个同位语从句,但该从句中taught无法做谓语,它在这里是一个过去分词,应该使用be taught。

  以上就为大家整理的“SAT语法考试要点:句子残缺”,更多精彩内容,请关注新东方在线SAT频道。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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